Photodetectors with internal amplification such as vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), silicone photomultipliers (SiPMs) and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) play a significant role in advancement of science and technology. They are used in up-to-date medical equipment—positron emission tomographs (PETs) and gamma chambers; in cargo and luggage control systems—scanners and introscopes; in laser location and lidars, and in many other areas.
In modern experimental nuclear physics, photodetectors of this kind are used in scintillation counters, time-of-flight systems, scintillation homogeneous and heterogeneous calorimeters, Cherenkov detectors, trackers, large-scale liquid scintillator detectors and water Cherenkov detectors employed for neutrino physics and other purposes.
Currently, various methods of PMT calibration and parameter measurements have been developed. However, they are focused on detailed examination of individual PMTs and not optimized for mass testing. What is more, every specific task requires elaboration of new methods and approaches and adaptation of current ones.
Discussed at the seminar were: - statistical methods and approaches to calibration of PMTs operating in photon counting mode; - mass testing of zonal characteristics of large PMTs in the JUNO experiment; - zonal distribution of SiPM characteristics (laser beam scanning); - methods and approaches to testing time characteristics of PMTs whose development and adaptation permitted studying application possibility of deep SiPMs in time-of-flight PET diagnostics and electromagnetic calorimetry in the COMPASS experiment; - studies of APDs from the NOvA neutrino experiment.
Based on the candidate dissertation.